The Mighty Wooly Mammoth
強壯的長毛象

語音播放:

Try to imagine the following animal:
嘗試想像一下下列的動物:

語音播放:

It stands over 300 centimeters tall and weighs 6000 kilograms. It has long fur hanging from its massive body, a trunk for fighting and manipulating objects, and pointed tusks that stick out 2 to 4 meters from its face.
站起來時超過三公尺高且重達六千公斤。厚重的身體上覆蓋長長的毛皮。一個用來打鬥以及操作物品的象鼻,和一副在臉上2-4公尺長的尖銳象牙。

語音播放:

If you are imaging this beast as a kind of hairy elephant, then you are pretty much right. The wooly mammoth is the extinct relative of today’s elephant. It died out at the end of the last ice age, about 10,000 years ago. It lived across a large area that covers today’s Northern Asia, Europe, and North America. What’s interesting is that humans and wooly mammoths actually coexisted for a while. Ancient humans hunted wooly mammoths to use their meat for food and tusks for tools and homes. Moreover, we know more about wooly mammoths than any other prehistoric animal because some of their bodies have been found perfectly preserved in Arctic ice.
如果你將這頭野獸想像成一種毛茸茸的大象,那很接近了。長毛象是現在的大象已絕種的親戚。它在上個冰河時期尾聲,約在一萬年前左右就已絕跡。它曾居住於現今北亞、歐洲和北美的廣大區域。最有趣的是人類曾和長毛象共存一段時間。早期人類曾獵殺長毛象來取肉為食,取其象牙做為工具及住家使用。除此之外,相較於其他史前動物,我們更了解長毛象,是因為在北極冰層中發現完整保存的屍體。

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So how did such a big and strong animal go extinct? It is believed that human hunting and climate change were responsible for killing them off.
為什麼這樣大型又強壯的生物會絕種呢?據說是因為人類獵殺與氣候變遷所導致。

Vocabulary 好字精選

1. massive (adj) very big or has a large mass 巨大的;為數眾多的
The new apartment is massive and is able to house thousands of people. 
這間新公寓的數量很多,足以容納幾千名住戶。

2. manipulate (v) handle or control sth. 操控,操作
You can manipulate the car using this remote control. 
你可以用遙控器來操控汽車。

3. extinct (adj) die of (for a whole species) 絕種,絕跡
That kind of bird went extinct about 10 years ago.
這種鳥類在10年前絕種了。

4. coexist (adj) live together or at the same time 共存
That bird and the rhino coexist happily because they help each other in various ways.
那隻鳥和犀牛互利共存,因為它們可以在不同方面相互幫助。

5. prehistoric (adj) ancient history, before writing was invented 史前的
Humans walked all over the Earth in prehistoric times.
史前時期人類遍佈地球。

6. preserve (v) to keep something the way it is 保存,保留
This beautiful painting must be preserved.
務必好好保存這幅美麗的畫。

Phrases and Sentence Patterns 句型解析

1. pretty much (expression) just about, basically 應該是..,基本上...
This essay is pretty much perfect. There is only one minor mistake.
除了一個小錯誤外,這文章接近完美。

2. ice age (expression) the glacial period  冰河時期
The Earth’s average temperature was about 5 degrees colder during the ice age.
在冰河時期,地球的均溫約低了5度。

3. what’s ADJ is that… (sentence pattern) (形容詞)的是…
What’s funny is that the kids didn’t even notice the sticker on their dad’s face.
最有趣的是小孩幾乎沒有注意到貼在父親臉上的貼紙。

Exercise 課後練習題

1. Most dinosaurs were _______________ creatures that roamed the Earth.
恐龍曾是地球上大規模存在的生物。

2. The robot has arms that can _______________ a variety of objects.
這個機器有可以操作各式物體的機械手臂。

3. Do you think the lion will go _______________ if people keep hunting it?
如果人類的獵捕持續下去,你認為獅子是否會絕種?

4. The people in this village and the monkeys in the forest nearby have ______________ for centuries.
村莊中的人們和附近森林裡的猴子共存了好幾個世紀。

5. In _______________ times, humans who lived in colder areas ate mostly meat.
在史前時代,住在較寒冷地區的人們大多都吃肉。

6. Some salt and spices are added to help _______________ the meat and make it last longer.
添加鹽與香料可用來使肉品保存得更久。

7. Dania is _______________ the only person in her company who rides a bike to work.
Dania應該是公司唯一騎腳踏車上班的人。

8. The _______________, when the Earth was colder, lasted from 2.4 million years ago to 10,000 years ago.
冰河時期是指兩百四十萬到一萬年前, 地球溫度較寒冷的時候。

9. _______________ crazy _______________ the runners didn’t stop to rest for more than six hours.
瘋狂的是跑者們持續跑步超過六小時沒有休息。

解答:
1. massive
2. manipulate
3. extinct
4. coexisted
5. prehistoric
6. preserve
7. pretty much
8. ice age
9. What’s/is that

Comprehension Questions 閱讀理解

1. What is the relationship between the wooly mammoth and the elephant?
a. They are related but lived at different times. 
b. They have no relationship whatsoever.
c. They lived at a similar time but are quite different.
d. They lived at different times but are exactly the same.

2. Why do we know so much about the wooly mammoth?
a. Humans saw them alive.
b. They lived in Northern Asia, Europe and North America.
c. Because they were so massive and mighty.
d. Their bodies got frozen in the ice.

解答:

1. 長毛象和大象有什麼樣的關連?
a. 它們是有親緣但存在於不同時期。
b. 它們在任何事物上都沒有關聯。
c. 它們幾乎在同一時期同時存在,但很不同。
d. 它們存在不同時期,但是相同的物種。

2. 為什麼我們知道長毛象的這麼多資訊?
a. 人們親眼看到。
b. 它們存在在北亞、歐洲和北美。
c. 因為它們很多且強壯的。
d. 它們的屍體被結凍在冰裡。

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