The History of Photography
攝影學歷史

語音播放:

Compared with other forms of art, photography is relatively new. If you wanted a picture of your family 200 years ago, you had to pay a professional artist to paint them, a process that could take weeks or months. But around the year 1800, scientists in Europe began to notice images left behind on metal after chemicals were exposed to light. Unfortunately, these images would vanish after a bit of time.
和其他藝術類型相較,攝影學算是相當新的一門藝術。兩百年前,假如你想要一張家人的畫像,你需要付錢請一名專業的藝術家來畫出家人畫像,作畫的過程可能要好幾週或好幾個月。但大約在西元1800年,歐洲科學家開始注意到化學藥劑曝光後,影像會遺留在金屬上。不幸的是,這些影像在過了一段時間後就會消失。

語音播放:

It wasn’t until Nicéphore Niépce began experimenting with silver in the early 1800s that permanent images were created. Niépce created the first true camera to take pictures that could be saved forever, but there was a problem. The camera had to be pointed at the subject for between 8 hours to several days for the image to fully form, which made it totally impractical for portraits.
直到1800年早期Nicéphore Niépce開始用銀粉做實驗,相片影像才能永久保存下來。Niépce製作了史上第一台專門拍攝永久影像的照相機,但卻有一個問題。相機得要對準拍攝物件八小時至數天之久影像才能完全顯影,用來拍攝肖像絕不可行。

語音播放:

However, Niépce’s associate, Louis Daguerre, greatly improved on his friend’s work, and created what is known as the daguerreotype: the first efficient and commonly-used method of photography. Daguerreotypes were able to produce clear black and white images quickly and easily, and they instantly became popular with people who wanted pictures of themselves.
但是Niépce的工作夥伴Louis Daguerre大大改進機器,進而創造了世人所知的銀鹽攝影:這是第一個有用且廣為使用的攝影法。銀鹽攝影可以快速且簡易製造清晰的黑白影像,因此立即受到想要拍攝肖像的民眾歡迎。

語音播放:

The early black and white images were a huge change, but there was an immediate desire to colorize the process. Various methods were used throughout the 19th and 20th century, but it was not until the 1970s that color photographs became truly commonplace. Ironically, after trying for so long to create a cheap and efficient process for developing color film, within 30 years, photography had become almost completely electronic with the rise of computers and digital cameras.
早年的黑白影像是一大變革,但人們很快就想要彩色影像。19世紀到20世紀之間各種不同的攝影法層出不窮,但直到20世紀70年代彩色照片才真正變得普及。諷刺地是,這麼長的一段時間人們試圖製造便宜且有用的彩色攝影,但三十年後相片攝影就因為電腦與數位相機的使用而完全變成數位化。

語音播放:

When looking back at the past centuries, it should seem remarkable that everyone today carries a camera on their phone which is powerful enough to take crystal clear photographs in almost any environment.
回顧這過去數百年,現代人有一台手機中都有相機,還能在任何環境中拍攝出無比清晰的相片,這似乎是非凡的成就。

Vocabulary 好字精選

1. relatively (adv) in comparison   相對地
This food is relatively good compared to the school cafeteria’s. 
這裡的食物相對學校餐廳,比較好吃。

2. expose (v) to make something visible in light   使暴露
You need to expose the plant to sunlight for it to grow. 
你需要將植物暴露在陽光下讓它們成長。

3. vanish (v) to completely disappear 消失;消逝;絕跡
The magician made the rabbit vanish.
魔術師讓兔子消失。

4. impractical (adj) not useful in real life 不切實際的
Living in a castle might seem cool, but it is also very impractical.
居住在城堡裡似乎很酷,但也非常不切實際。

5. associate (n) a partner 夥伴;合夥人
Gloria gave her associate copies of the documents she was working on.
Gloria將正在寫的文件副本交給她的合夥人。

6. colorize (v) to change something from black and white to color 給…著色;使有色彩
Some old movies have been colorized by modern technology.
有些老電影被現代科技添加色彩。

7. commonplace (adj) ordinary; usual   平淡無味的;平凡的;普通的
Nowadays, it is commonplace to see people using their phones to take pictures.
現今,看到人們用手機拍照很常見。

8. ironically (adv) in an unexpected way  說反話的;諷刺的
Ironically, the fire station is burned down in a fire.
諷刺地,消防局被大火燒毀。

9. remarkable (adj) interesting or amazing  非凡的;卓越的
The artist created a remarkable statue.
這名藝術家創造了卓越的雕像。

Phrases and Sentence Patterns 句型解析

1. the rise of sth. (phr) when something becomes more common or popular 興起
When the iPhone was release, it began the rise of smart phones.
當iPhone發行時,就開始智慧型手機的興起。

2. look back at (phr) to remember or think about the past  回想起
As people get older, they start to look back at their lives.
人們年紀愈大就開始回想過往人生。

3. crystal clear (phr) very easy to understand or see   清楚地;清晰地
When Lydia got her new glasses, it made everything look crystal clear.
Lydia收到新的眼鏡時,所有事情看起來都很清晰。

Exercise 課後練習題

1. This song lasts 6 minutes, so it’s _______________ long. 
這首歌曲持續六分鐘,因此相對冗長。

2. The storm tore a hole in our roof, which ______________ the inside of our house to the rain. 
這場暴風雨將屋頂扯破了一個洞,這將我們的房子暴露在雨水中。

3. The new cleaning product promises to make dirt_______________. 
這件新上市的清潔產品保證洗淨髒汙。

4. It’s a little _______________ to ask students to write a 1000-word paper in just one hour. 
要求學生在一小時內寫出一千字的報告有點不切實際。

5. Nicole needed help with the project, so Brian recommended that she call one of his _______________ for advice. 
Nicole的企劃案需要協助,所以Brian建議她請同僚提出建議。

6. Some people think that _______________ an old picture makes it less beautiful. 
有些人覺得將舊照片添加顏色讓照片看起來比較不美。

7. In many countries, it is still _______________ for women to stay at home to take care of children. 
在許多國家裡,女子待在家照顧孩子依然很常見。

8. I spent more time studying for this exam, but _______________ I got a much lower score. 
我多花許多時間準備考試,但諷刺地,我的分數很低。

9. Julia thought it was _______________ Tom had so many pet birds. 
Julia認為Tom豢養許多鳥類很厲害。

10. _______________ computers has changed the way the whole world works. 
電腦興起改變了整個世界的運作方式。

11. At our graduation party, we all _______________ what we had learned at school. 
在我們的畢業典禮上,我們都回顧我們在學校學的東西。

12. After the math professor explained the problem, the answer was suddenly _______________. 
在數學教授解釋之後,這個問題的答案突然呼之欲出。

解答:
1. relatively
2. exposed
3. vanish
4. impractical
5. associates
6. colorize
7. commonplace
8. ironically
9. remarkable
10. The rise of
11. looked back at
12. crystal clear

Comprehension Questions 閱讀理解

1. What was the problem with the earliest photographic images in the 1800s?
a. They took too long to appear.
b. People did not like the black and white style.
c. They disappeared after some time passed.
d. They were too expensive for most people to buy.

2. What does the author say about the development of color photography?
a. Color photographs were not as popular as people expected.
b. Color photographs were invented very quickly after black white ones.
c. Color photographs were not as clear as black and white ones.
d. Color photographs were quickly replaced by digital photos.

1. 1800年代的最早期攝影影像有何問題?
a. 照片顯影的時間過長。
b. 人們不喜歡黑白風格。
c. 一段時間過後影像就消失了。
d. 攝影太昂貴,大多人買不起。

2. 以下選項何者是作者對彩色攝影發展的敘述?
a. 彩色攝影不如眾人期待那樣受人歡迎。
b. 黑白攝影後很快就發明彩色攝影。
c. 彩色攝影不如黑白攝影那樣清晰。
d. 彩色攝影很快就被數位照片取代。

版權宣告

本內容版權為驊鉅數位科技有限公司所擁有,未經授權請勿作商業使用。 
轉載時請勿修改圖片文字內容等資訊,並保留版權宣告的相關訊息,否則將視為侵權使用。
© Huachu Digital Technology Limited Company. All Rights Reserved.
Please do not change any contents and information when you forward this newsletter, and keep all messages of COPYRIGHT. Or you will infringe the rights of Huachu Digital Technology Limited Company.