Umami:The Fifth Taste
鮮味:第五種味道

語音播放:

If you like candy, you’ve probably heard of sweetness. You’ve probably heard of saltiness, sourness, and bitterness too. But have you heard of umami? Umami is a savory taste that can be found in many meats, cheeses, and vegetables.
如果你喜歡糖果,你可能聽過甜味。你也可能聽說過鹹、酸、苦三味。但你曾聽過鮮味嗎? 鮮味是一種可口的滋味,在許多肉類、起司及蔬菜中都找到。

語音播放:

Umami was discovered by a professor in Japan in the early 1900s. His name was Kikunae Ikeda, He noticed a taste that didn’t seem to be sweet, salty, sour, or bitter, and he called this new taste umami.
鮮味在二十世紀初由日本的教授發現。他的名字叫池田菊苗,他注意到一種似乎不甜、不鹹、不酸也不苦的味道,他稱這個新的味道為鮮味。

語音播放:

The qualities of umami have been described by chefs in detail. Most chefs believe that unlike sweetness and saltiness, umami is a taste that spreads out across the tongue. It also seems to stick around in a person’s mouth for quite a while, whereas sweet or salty tastes go away quickly. Furthermore, it makes a person’s mouth more watery. Some people think that these qualities make umami more special.
鮮味的特質已被廚師詳細描述。大多數廚師認為,不同於甜味和鹹味,鮮味是一種會散佈至整個舌頭的味道。它也似乎會在一個人的嘴裡停留一段時間,而甜或鹹的味道很快就消失了。此外,它會使一個人的嘴分泌更多唾液。有些人認為這些特質讓鮮味更加特別。

語音播放:

A variety of foods have umami. Tomatoes and onions contain umami. Meats such as pork, fish, and beef have umami in them as well. Umami can also be found in some dried mushrooms.
很多種食物都有鮮味。番茄和洋蔥就含有鮮味。豬肉、魚肉和牛肉等肉類也有鮮味在其中。 某一些乾躁香菇中也可以發現鮮味。

Vocabulary 好字精選

1. savory (adj.) belonging to the category that is salty or spicy rather than sweet鹹的/非甜味
Do you prefer savory food or sweet food? 
你喜歡鹹的還是甜的食物?

2. discover (v) to find in the course of a search發現
Kelly discovered a dead body in the forest. 
Kelly在森林裡發現了一個具屍體。

3. bitter (adj.) having a sharp, pungent taste 苦味
Coffee beans have a bitter taste.  
咖啡豆有苦味。

4. quality (n) a distinctive characteristic possessed by someone or something 特質
quality (n) a distinctive characteristic possessed by someone or something 特質
他有很多很好的特質:有耐心、善良和慷慨。

5. tongue (n) the fleshy organ in the mouth of a mammal 舌頭
The little boy stuck out his tongue at the girl.
那小男孩向那小女孩吐舌頭。

Phrases and Sentence Patterns 句型解析

1. in detail (phrase) with more detail 詳細
The police officer asked Shelly to describe the killer in detail.
警察要求Shelly詳細描述殺手。

2. spread out (phrasal verb) to extend over an area 延伸/散開
He spread out the box’s contents on the table.
他把盒子裡的東西散放在桌子上。

3. stick around (idiom) to remain or linger in some place 留下
Would you like to stick around and have dinner?
你想要留下來吃晚餐嗎?

Exercise 課後練習題

1. Pizza is a _______________ food.
披薩是鹹的食物。

2. As I was looking through some old things, I _______________ a book that had been written by my mother.
當我在找一些舊東西時,我發現了一本由我母親寫的書。

3. If you like _______________ food, try eating chocolate without any sugar added.
如果你喜歡苦的食物,吃吃看不加糖的巧克力。

4. Steve has a lot of good _______________, but sometimes he can be mean.
Steve有很多好的特質,但有時他可以很刻薄。

5. The dog used its _______________ to drink the water.
那隻狗用舌頭喝水。

6. He still doesn’t know how to do it. Please explain it to him _______________.
他還是不知道該怎麼做,請詳細向他說明。

7. The soccer players _______________ across the field and then got ready for the game to start.
足球員分散在場上,然後準備好開始比賽。

8.  Ziv decided to _______________ until the game was over.
決定留下來至遊戲結束。

解答:
1. savory
2. discovered
3. bitter
4. qualities
5. tongue
6. in detail
7. spread out
8. stick around

Comprehension Questions 閱讀理解

1. Why do some people think umami is special?
a. It stays in a person’s mouth for a longer time. 
b. It’s both sweet and salty.
c. Chefs like it more than sweet or salty tastes.
d. It can be found in lots of foods.

2. According to the article, which of the following foods does NOT contain umami?  
a. Cheese.
b. Onions.
c. Pork.
d. Candy.

解答:

1. 為什麼有些人認為鮮味很特別?
a. 留在人的嘴裡的時間比較長。 
b. 既甜又鹹。
c. 比起甜味或鹹味,廚師更喜歡它。
d. 可以在許多食物中發現。

2. 根據文章,以下哪一項食物不含有鮮味?
a. 起司。
b. 洋蔥。
c. 豬肉。
d. 糖果。

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