Invasive Species in Australia
澳洲的入侵物種

語音播放:

Australia has some of the strictest border controls in the world when it comes to what items you can bring into the country, especially related to animals and plants. That’s because the country has a very fragile ecosystem that has been adversely affected by the introduction of a number of species in the past.
澳洲有一些世界上最嚴格的邊境管制,涉及到哪些物品可以進入該國,特別是與動植物有關的物品。這是因為該國有一個非常脆弱的生態系統,因為過去引進了許多物種而受到不利影響。

語音播放:

Australia’s wildlife is unique because it has developed in isolation from other parts of the world for so long. When the British colonized Australia, they tried to introduce several animal species, many of which caused great harm to the local environment. Some of them had no natural predators, so they reproduced out of control, or they ate local plants to the point of extinction. Examples include sheep, camels, foxes, rabbits, and cane toads.
澳洲的野生動物是獨一無二的,因為澳洲與世界其他地區隔絕了很長時間。當英國殖民澳洲時,他們試圖引進幾種動物,其中許多物種對當地的環境造成極大的傷害。這些物種其中一些沒有天敵,所以失控地繁殖,或者吃了當地的植物造成絕種。例子包括綿羊、駱駝、狐狸、兔子和海蟾蜍。

語音播放:

Introduced plant species have also wreaked havoc on Australia’s ecosystem. The British wanted to grow trees and flowers that they were familiar to them from home, but some of them spread wildly, invading natural landscapes and agricultural land. Today there are 32 recognized weeds in Australia, and the government spends $4 billion per year trying to control them.
澳洲引進的植物物種也肆虐當地的生態系統。英國人想在家裡種一些他們熟悉的樹木和花卉,但其中一些卻四處蔓延,侵入自然景觀及農田。如今澳洲有32種公認的雜草,政府每年花費40億澳元試圖控制它們。

語音播放:

So now you can understand why passengers landing in Australia have to answer so many questions about what they are carrying. Even a little mud containing plant seeds stuck to your tent, for example, could result in a disaster for the country.
所以現在你可以明白為什麼在澳洲登陸的乘客必須回答這麼多關於他們攜帶的物品。例如,即使是一小塊沾有植物種子的泥土黏在你的帳篷,也可能會導致國家的災難。

Vocabulary 好字精選

1. efragile (adj) easily broken or damaged 易碎的
Don’t shake this box. The contents are fragile. 
不要搖這個盒子。內容物易碎。

2. ecosystem (n) a specific environment and all the living things in it 生態系統
This swamp is an entire ecosystem of its own. 
這個沼澤有自己的一個完整生態系統。

3. adversely (adv) in a negative way 不利的
Many workers were adversely impacted by the merger of the two companies. 
許多工作人員受到兩家公司合併後的不利影響。

4. isolation (n) far away from anything else 孤立,隔離
The old man lived a life of isolation up in the mountains by himself.
老人獨自在山裡過著與世隔絕的生活。

5. colonize (v) when one country occupies another for an extended period 殖民
India was colonized by England.
印度曾被英國殖民。

6. predator (n) an animal that eats another 捕食者,獵食者
This snake is a fierce predator.
蛇是一種兇猛的獵食動物。

7. weed (n) a plant that spreads easily and is usually unwanted 雜草
Mrs. Lambert was picking all the weeds out of her garden.
Lambert 太太從花園裡挑出了所有的雜草。

Phrases and Sentence Patterns 句型解析

1. out of control (phr) uncontrollably 失控,無法控制
The students were out of control, running around the museum noisily.
學生們失去控制,喧鬧地在博物館裡跑來跑去?

2. wreak havoc (expression) wreak = cause, havoc = a lot of destruction 造成破壞
The virus is wreaking havoc on the local population.
病毒對當地人口造成嚴重破壞。

Exercise 課後練習題

1. Betty put a _______________ sticker on her luggage because it contained a glass vase.
Betty把易碎的標籤放在行李上,因為裡面裝著玻璃花瓶。

2. Most desert _______________ are home to a surprising amount of wildlife.
大多居住在沙漠生態系統裡的野生動物數量驚人。

3. Drinking or doing drugs can _______________ affect one’s ability to drive.
飲酒或吸毒會對人的駕駛能力造成不利影響。

4. Those patients must be kept in _______________ because their disease can easily spread.
這些病人必須隔離,因為他們的疾病很容易傳播。

5. Nepal is a country that has never been _______________ by a European power.
尼泊爾是一個從未被歐洲強權所殖民的國家。

6. Rabbits live underground because they have many _______________ above ground.
兔子住在地下,因為它們在地面上有許多天敵。

7.Dandelions are pretty little yellow flowers but they can take over gardens like a _______________.
蒲公英是漂亮的小黃花,但是他們會像雜草般佔據花園。

8. The virus is spreading ______________ and thousands of people are dying.
病毒蔓延失控,成千上萬的人死亡。

9. The typhoon is expected to _______________ on the coast.
預計颱風將在海岸造成嚴重破壞。

解答:
1. fragile
2. ecosystems
3. adversely
4. isolation
5. colonized
6. predators
7. weed
8. out of control
9. wreak havoc

Comprehension Questions 閱讀理解

1. According to the article, what did the British do incorrectly when they colonized Australia? 
a. They brought in many species that didn’t belong. 
b. They killed off many local species.
c. They didn’t know how to raise local animals and crops properly.
d. They didn’t have strict enough controls for arriving tourists.

2. Why is Australia’s ecosystem so fragile?
a. Because kangaroos and koalas live there.
b. Because it was colonized by the British.
c. Because it is a land mass far away from any other.
d. Because of the unique climate of the country.

解答:

1. 根據文章內容,英國在殖民澳洲時做錯了什麼?
a. 他們帶來了許多不屬於那裡的物種。
b. 他們殺死了許多當地的物種。
c. 他們不知道如何正確地養殖當地的動物和農作物。
d. 他們對到達的遊客沒有嚴格的管制。

2. 為什麼澳洲的生態系統如此脆弱?
a. 因為袋鼠和無尾熊住在那裡。
b. 因為它是英國殖民地。
c. 因為它是遠離其他地方的土地。
d. 由於該國獨特的氣候。

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